Society in the Eastern Roman Empire wasn’t as far-removed from our own as you might think. Sure, they had a class of rich and a class of poor. There were others who lived comfortably without the luxuries of the super-rich. These Romans had a different kind of government, but you might be surprised why they chose to be ruled the way they did.
Long before the Roman Empire split into east and western halves, it was a kingdom ruled by kings. The monarchy eventually toppled when its people stopped believing in a king’s ability to lead them. The kingdom evolved into a republic, in which certain kinds of citizens were allowed to vote. During one period, consuls held the highest authority but were only voted in for a year at a time, ensuring that no one could easily grasp too much power. To be called a king was a supreme insult.
When the Roman Empire split, emperors continued to rule in the East. Perhaps they weren’t so different from kings. Perhaps they were. In order to keep a dynasty up and running, each successive ruler had to prove legitimacy, and that was determined by ability. If an emperor couldn’t handle the job, down he went. Even plebeians and warriors were sometimes elevated to this position–and that’s all it was, a position–although it was rare.
This was a society in which you could potentially work your way up the ladder no matter who you were, even though it was as seemingly difficult or sometimes impossible as it is today. Anything was possible, but the point is that birth did not guarantee your place in the social hierarchy.
A great number of slaves were used to conduct all sorts of labor. Slaves might be sold to a cruel master or a generous one. It was even possible that a slave could be freed after years of service. Liberated slaves were often accepted as part of society.
At the very top of the social structure were the aristocrats and government officials. Below them were the wealthy merchants and some landowners. On the bottom rung were the poor. The clergy didn’t reside on the same social structure as everyone else, but they might be privy to privileges only enjoyed by those on the upper rungs of the ladder. It was a mostly respected profession like a criminal defense lawyer Miami.